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Translation And Relevance: Cognition And Context !LINK!

Direct translation - a special case of interpretive use On the use of the original context Partial resemblance in linguistic properties as translation? Translation, relevance and successful communication Risks of failure in translation Making intentions and expectations meet Conclusion

Translation and Relevance: Cognition and Context

This chapter reviews translation studies research based on cognitive pragmatics, which can be broadly defined as encompassing the study of the cognitive principles and processes involved in the construal of meaning-in-context. Even though other cognitive pragmatic theories have been developed in the last three decades, Relevance Theory (Sperber & Wilson, 1986/1995) can be considered as the main theoretical framework in the area of cognitive pragmatics as well as the only cognitive-pragmatic approach within translation studies. Section 1 provides an overview of the cognitive approach to communication taken by relevance theorists, drawing attention to two aspects, i.e., the distinction between explicit and implicit content (1.2) and the relationship between thoughts and utterances (1.3). Sections 2 and 3 show how the application of Relevance Theory has shed light on key issues in translation and interpreting studies.

Drawing on these presuppositions, Ernst-August Gutt proposed the first application of RT to translation studies, spear-headed by the publication of Translation and Relevance: Cognition and Context in 1991 (followed by a second edition in 2000). In section 2.1, I discuss his notion of translation based on the relevance-theoretic model of human cognition, and its extended applications to translations, which include Alves (1995) and Alves and Gonçalves (2003). Section 2.2 explores a number of critiques put forward by translation studies scholars about the applicability of RT to translation studies.

The Christian faith as a whole "never exists except as translated into a culture" (Bosch 2002:447; Sanneh 2004:1). In the missionary expansion of Christianity, Scripture translations, often taken for granted, have served as the main catalyst, although it has not always received the necessary recognition. From a historical perspective, it rightly can be argued that Christianity owes its very being to translations. Translations unceasingly mediate the salvation of Christ Jesus from one culture to another, extending the open-ended meaning of incarnation and resurrection as much as possible. The time has come for Christians in Africa to take note of how much Christianity owes to translations. However, this can only happen when the translation communities come out and make their case out in appropriate forums (Church and public institutions).

First, African biblical translation is often not hermeneutical enough, by which I mean that it does not partake of and draw from the rich array of resources currently available to biblical hermeneutics generally. African biblical translation tends to be a hermeneutically unreflective practice. While technically competent in terms of biblical scholarship, African Bible translation seems reluctant to complete the hermeneutical circle by moving from what the text might have meant to what the text might mean in Africa … Secondly, African biblical translation is often not African enough, by which I mean that it does not readily engage with African realities as the subject of its scholarship. African biblical translation tends to err on the side of missionary (in the broadest sense) meanings of the text and African context.

The model of relevance theory in translation is strongly influenced by communication theory. According to Gutt (2000:204; Naude & Van der Merwe 2002:107-117), translation is an inter-lingual interpretive usage (translation as secondary communication vs direct communication), which proceeds by comparisons of the observable input (original text) and output (translated text). This process aims at an optimal relevance, which refers to the attitude of the hearer who expects his/her interpretation to yield adequate contextual effects at minimal processing cost (Gutt 1991:20). In other words, translation deals with explicatures (information linguistically encoded in the text) and implicatures (assumptions expected to be decoded from the context) (Snuth 2000:77). In this transaction, the context of communication plays a major role in helping the audience to establish a mutual cognitive environment with the author, namely situational, inter-textual, co-textual elements (Pattemore 2003:190).

Literary-functional equivalence constitutes a new development of functional equivalence, with specific emphasis on literary features, which many common language translations have often neglected (Wendland 2004:32, 45). It depicts translation as a mediated act of communication (genre, context, settings, cognitive and skopos frames) that represents in a given language the variety of expressive dynamics (great impact, appeal and beauty) of diverse texts of Scripture. Special attention is paid to the target language through a literary-rhetorical analysis and application of the target language's verbal forms (constitution - collection - classification - comparison - compensation - creation - examination - and - criticism) (Wendland 2004:266-272).

Abstract:Background: People with type 1 diabetes are susceptible to disordered eating behaviors. The American Diabetes Association recommends using the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R) to screen them. There is no validated diabetes-specific screening measure in China. The objectives were to adapt DEPS-R into Mandarin Chinese and to test its psychometric properties among youths and adults with type 1 diabetes in China, respectively. Methods: This study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 included context relevance evaluation and instrument translation. Phase 2 was psychometric testing of reliability and construct validity among 89 youths (817 years old) and 61 adults with type 1 diabetes. Result: The Context Relevance Index and Translation Validity Index of this instrument were good. Strong internal consistency reliability correlations and convergent validity were demonstrated among youths and adults. Discussion: The Chinese version of the DEPS-R is a valid and reliable tool for screening disordered eating behaviors in Chinese youths and adults with type 1 diabetes. The Context Relevance Index is advocated to evaluate the difference between the context in which an instrument was originally developed and the target context.Keywords: diabetes eating problem survey-revised; context relevance; instrument translation; psychometric property; type 1 diabetes 041b061a72

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